iron carbide making process

Process for Manufacturing of Iron Carbide – IspatGuru

Mar 11, 2018· The iron carbide process involves conversion of preheated fine iron ore particles to iron carbide. It reduces iron ore to iron carbide in a fluidized bed reactor, by contacting the iron ore with process gas consisting primarily of methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2).

Iron Carbide Process | Industrial Efficiency Technology

The Iron Carbide process is a two stage fluidized bed process that operates at a lower temperature than other direct reduction processes. It operates at low pressures and uses steam reforming to produce the H2 which is mixed with CH4 to make the carburizing gas. It …

Shaft furnace for production of iron carbide - Midrex

May 05, 1995· An iron carbide (Fe 3 C) product is produced in a shaft furnace by the steps of: first, establishing a gravitational flow of particulate iron oxide material by charging a generally vertical shaft furnace having an upper reducing zone and a lower cooling zone with particulate iron oxide material to form a burden therein; second, introducing a reducing gas into the furnace intermediate the upper and …

The Steel Making Industry

First, the heat source used to melt iron ore is produced. Next the iron ore is melted in a furnace. Finally, the molten iron is processed to produce steel. These three steps can be done at one facility; however, the fuel source is often purchased from off-site producers.

Characterization of phases formed in the iron carbide

Iron carbide was prepared by iron ore reduction and iron cementation using Ar-H 2 -CH 4 gas mixture with and without sulfur. Phases formed in the reduction/cementation process were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer, and Raman spectroscopy. The sample surface was also analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

US5387274A - Process for the production of iron carbide

A process for converting iron oxide to iron carbide at low pressure includes providing a reforming-reduction-carburizing reactor wherein a feed gas is reformed by contact with the iron oxide

Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram | Material Engineering

The Iron-Iron carbide (Fe-Fe 3 C) is defined by five individual phases and four invariant reactions. Five phases are- α-ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solid solution, γ-austenite (FCC) Fe-C solid solution, δ -ferrite (BCC) Fe-C solid solution, Fe 3 C (iron carbide) or cementite – an inter- metallic compound and liquid Fe-C solution. Four invariant reactions are eutectoid, eutectic, monotectic and peritectic.

The iron-iron carbide (Fe-Fe3C) phase diagram

The iron-iron carbide (Fe-Fe 3C) phase diagram Ferrite-α-BCC, low C solubility(0.022%wt), magnetic Austenite-γ-FCC, high C solubility(2.14%wt), the amount of carbide (cementite) in grams that forms per 100 g of steel c) the amount of pearlite and proeutectoid ferrite (α) 5 Phase Equilibria Solution: 94.3 g …

Glossary of Steel Industry Terms - American Iron and Steel

Iron Carbide. One of several substitutes for high-quality, low-residual scrap for use in electric furnace steelmaking. Iron carbide producers use natural gas to reduce iron ore to iron carbide. Iron Ore. Mineral containing enough iron to be a commercially viable source of the element for use in steelmaking.

How is Wrought Iron Made? - History of Steel - Carolina

As the carbide in the iron gives up is carbon, the iron ore packed around the castings releases oxygen which coines with the freed carbon to form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide which escape from the …

How is Wrought Iron Made? - History of Steel - Carolina

As the carbide in the iron gives up is carbon, the iron ore packed around the castings releases oxygen which coines with the freed carbon to form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide which escape from the …

Latest Advances in Direct Reduction integrated to Meltshop

DRI quality – HYL High Carbide Iron (HCI) Carbon in the DRI, mostly as iron carbide (Fe 3C), is derived mainly from methane (CH 4) and in less extent from CO. The level of carbon is adjusted by controlling the reducing gas composition and/or oxygen injection. Most of the carbon in DRI currently being produced in the HYL ZR scheme is in the form of Fe

DESCRIPTION OF THE IRON CARBIDE PROCESS

the form of carbide, iron carbide supplies some of the energy needed to melt and dissolve it in steel, as opposed to scrap which can only supply energy by oxidizing iron. To thermally balance the process, if iron carbide is added as a cold solid, in place of scrap-iron, it can replace scrap in a 2/1 ratio. By replacing scrap-iron with iron carbide,

A Look at Today''s Cast Iron | Production Machining

Mar 15, 2003· Carbon coines with iron to form iron carbide, a very hard, brittle constituent. As the iron cools, the carbide forms in plates, alternating with plates of ferrite to form a structure called pearlite. Pearlite is much softer than pure iron carbide, but is very wear resistant, has high strength, has some ductility and can be readily machined.

Cast iron |Iron Casting| Advantage | Types | Processing

Cast iron is a ferrous alloy of iron, carbon and silicon. With carbon content of 2.1 to 4.5 % and silicon at about 2.2% and small amount of Sulphur, Manganese and Phosphorous. Iron casting is one of the oldest casting methods in the world. The cast iron is melted and poured into molds or casts to make a part of products of desired size and shape.The cast iron can be used in a range of industries.

Cementite - Wikipedia

While cementite is present in most steels and cast irons, it is produced as a raw material in the iron carbide process, which belongs to the family of alternative ironmaking technologies. The name cementite originated from the research of Floris Osmond and J. Werth, where the structure of solidified steel consists of a kind of cellular tissue in theory, with ferrite as the nucleus and Fe 3 C the envelope of the …

Ironmaking Alternatives Screening - Energy

PROCESS DESCRIPTION: The iron oxide feed to a SL/RN kiln is in the form of lump or pellet iron ore, reductant (low-cost non-coking coal) and limestone or dolomite (to absorb sulfur from high sulfur reductant). The rotary kiln is inclined downward from the feed (elevated end) to the discharge end.

(PDF) Behavior and benefits of high-Fe3C DRI in the EAF

This is where the strong reducing ga ses convert iron oxide to iron carbide. • The product is cooled to 65°C (150°F). Two commercial plants were put in production using the iron carbide process.

11.4 Calcium Carbide Manufacturing

in the calcium carbide production process. Molten calcium carbide is tapped continuously from the furnace into chills and is allowed to cool and solidify. Then, the solidified calcium carbide goes through primary crushing by jaw crushers, followed by secondary crushing and screening for size. To prevent explosion hazards from acetylene generated by the reaction of calcium carbide with aient

Calcium Carbide Appliions - Carbide Industries LLC

Generally sing, the different grades of carbide that we make correspond to different reactivities of the carbide. For example, we produce fast-acting carbide powder that is injected into molten iron to coine with and remove sulfur. We also supply carbide in a slower-reacting nut size to add to the stream of molten metal when the steelmaking furnace is tapped.

Iron Carbide

Iron carbide is the most environmentally advanced DRI process, producing only water and low levels of carbon dioxide. steel produced with iron carbide generates the lowest carbon emission of any technology. The carbon dioxide generated by the process is highly concentrated and thus is available for secondary oil recovery and other beneficial uses. Read more about the environmental benefits of iron …

THE SMART CHOICE - TENOVA

The process characteristics allow for independent control of the DRI metallization and carbon levels. Metallization can be adjusted at will, typically around 94% and higher. _ DRI carbon levels can be selected in the range of 1.5 - 4.0%, most of which is in the form of iron carbide.

DESCRIPTION OF THE IRON CARBIDE PROCESS

the form of carbide, iron carbide supplies some of the energy needed to melt and dissolve it in steel, as opposed to scrap which can only supply energy by oxidizing iron. To thermally balance the process, if iron carbide is added as a cold solid, in place of scrap-iron, it can replace scrap in a 2/1 ratio. By replacing scrap-iron with iron carbide,

Characterization of phases formed in the iron carbide

Iron carbide was prepared by iron ore reduction and iron cementation using Ar-H 2 -CH 4 gas mixture with and without sulfur. Phases formed in the reduction/cementation process were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer, and Raman spectroscopy. The sample surface was also analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

iron: Production and Refining | Infoplease

The carbon remains distributed throughout the iron as cementite (iron carbide, Fe 3 C). A malleable cast iron can be made by annealing white iron castings in a special furnace. Some of the carbon separates from the cementite; it is much more finely divided than in gray iron. A ductile iron may be prepared by adding magnesium to the molten pig iron; when the iron is cast the carbon forms tiny spherical …

iron: Production and Refining | Infoplease

The carbon remains distributed throughout the iron as cementite (iron carbide, Fe 3 C). A malleable cast iron can be made by annealing white iron castings in a special furnace. Some of the carbon separates from the cementite; it is much more finely divided than in gray iron.

Latest Advances in Direct Reduction integrated to Meltshop

DRI quality – HYL High Carbide Iron (HCI) Carbon in the DRI, mostly as iron carbide (Fe 3C), is derived mainly from methane (CH 4) and in less extent from CO. The level of carbon is adjusted by controlling the reducing gas composition and/or oxygen injection. Most of the carbon in DRI currently being produced in the HYL ZR scheme is in the form of Fe