types of iron making process

Steel manufacturefo

There are three main types of marketed ironmaking or BF slags, egorised by how they are cooled – air-cooled, granulated, and pelletised (or expanded). Air-cooled slag is hard and dense and is especially suitable for use as construction aggregate.

What''s the Process of Iron Smelting? - Meetyou Carbide

Jan 08, 2021· One is steel-making pig iron: the carbon in the pig iron exists in the form of compound, and its cross section is silver white, also known as white iron; the other is casting pig iron: it is directly used to make machine parts. ferroalloy. Iron and any kind of metal or nonmetal alloy are called ferroalloy (some are also called alloy pig iron).

Iron ore - Wikipedia

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. The iron is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe 2 O 3, 69.9% Fe), goethite (FeO(OH), 62.9% Fe), limonite (FeO(OH)·n(H 2 O), 55% Fe) or …

Iron making - SlideShare

Mar 02, 2013· These are: (i) Soft or low carbon steels up to 0·15% C (ii) Mild steels in the range 0·15-0·35% C (iii) Medium carbon steels in the range 0·35-0·65% C (iv) High carbon steels in the range 0·65-1·75% C. 8. The alloy steels are broadly sub-divided into three groupson the basis of the total alloying elements present.

Changes to Iron Production | History of Western

The process continued ntil the late 19th century when iron was displaced by steel. Because puddling required human skill in sensing the iron globs, it was never successfully mechanized. Hot blast, patented by James Beaumont Neilson in 1828, was the most important development of the 19th century for saving energy in making pig iron.

The Different Types of Steel and How They are Made

There are two main types of metal: ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous refers to using iron as the main component, meaning ferrous metals are those composed mainly from iron. The most primitive technique for making steel was to melt down and coine wrought iron and cast iron.

Iron and Types of Iron – IspatGuru

Feb 22, 2017· Merchant pig iron is basically of the following two types. Basic grade – Basic pig iron has less than 1.0 % silicon, under 1 % manganese, and trace amounts of sulphur and phosphorous. This type of pig iron is mainly used for steel making. There are several grades specified in various standards based on silicon and manganese content of the pig

Iron & Steel Making - Askmemetallurgy

askmemetallurgy provides you lots of fully solved Metallurgical Engineering (Iron & Steel Making) questions and answers with Explanation. All students, freshers can attemp or download Metallurgical Engineering Physical Metallurgy quiz questions with …

Iron processing | Britannica

When iron making was properly established, two types of furnace came into use. Bowl furnaces were constructed by digging a small hole in the ground and arranging for air from a bellows to be introduced through a pipe or tuyere. Stone-built shaft furnaces, on the other hand, relied on natural draft, although they too sometimes used tuyeres. In both cases, smelting involved …

Metal Types and Recycling Process

Mar 05, 2021· Steel and iron are the most recycled materials in the world due in part to the opportunity to recover large structures as well as the ease of reprocessing. The use of magnets in the sorting process enables recyclers to easily separate them from the mixed waste stream. Currently, the single most recycled container in the world is the aluminum can.

Direct reduced iron - Wikipedia

Process. Direct reduction processes can be divided roughly into two egories: gas-based, and coal-based. In both cases, the objective of the process is to remove the oxygen contained in various forms of iron ore (sized ore, concentrates, pellets, mill scale, furnace dust, etc.), in order to convert the ore to metallic iron, without melting it (below 1,200 °C (2,190 °F)).

How iron is made - material, manufacture, making, history

Iron ore is converted into various types of iron through several processes. The most common process is the use of a blast furnace to produce pig iron which is about 92-94% iron and 3-5% carbon with smaller amounts of other elements.

Different Types of Iron Ore

Oct 05, 2016· Iron formation consists of iron ore such as siderite, magnetite, and hematite, with silica in the form of chert, jasper, etc., generally in bands, but sometimes not distinctly so. The bands of iron ore are at times high-grade, but are often mixed with a good deal of silica, the whole making an ore too lean for use without concentration.

Development of Smelting Reduction Processes for Ironmaking

Mar 08, 2017· The process generates large quantity of high calorific value (around 2000 kcal/N cum) export gas and the economic viability of the process depends on its efficient utilization. The maximum module size of a SR process unit is limited and may not be the best alternative if large iron making capacities are required in the plant.

How iron is made - material, manufacture, making, history

Iron ore is converted into various types of iron through several processes. The most common process is the use of a blast furnace to produce pig iron which is about 92-94% iron and 3-5% carbon with smaller amounts of other elements.

Iron in the Industrial Revolution - ThoughtCo

Jul 26, 2019· 1825 has been called the start of the new Iron Age, as the iron industry experienced a massive stimulation from the heavy demand for railways, which needed iron rails, iron in the stock, bridges, tunnels and more. Meanwhile, civilian use increased, as everything which could be made of iron began to be in demand, even window frames.

Types of Cast Iron [Explained with Material Composition] PDF

Apr 01, 2021· The malleable cast iron is obtained from white cast iron by a suitable heat treatment process (i.e., annealing). The annealing process separates the coined carbon of the white cast iron into nodule of free graphite.

Pig Iron Manufacturing Process

Mar 20, 2017· Making Pig Iron by Electric Furnace . Five groups of experiments were made on the electric-furnace production of pig steel, arranged as below: Group I. A series in which both limestone and coke were varied in the charge. Group II. A series in which the amount of coke in the charge was varied, other components remaining constant. Group III.

Production of iron and steel - SlideShare

Apr 27, 2015· 4/27/2015 7 Production of Pig – Iron process 1. Raw materials procurement Coal Pallets lump ore Fuel oil Limestone Alloying medium Engineering Materals II (MEng 2122) 8. 4/27/2015 8 Production of Pig – Iron process Street Harbor Rails Coking plant Foreign coke Grading plant Furnace Sintering plant Pig iron desulphurisation 2.

Infographic: the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Process

Jun 04, 2015· Steel is made primarily in a two-step process. In the primary steelmaking step, liquid iron is converted into steel by the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) process, or by melting scrap steel or direct reduced iron (DRI) in an electric arc furnace. Secondary steelmaking is a refining process …

Production of iron and steel - SlideShare

Apr 27, 2015· 4/27/2015 7 Production of Pig – Iron process 1. Raw materials procurement Coal Pallets lump ore Fuel oil Limestone Alloying medium Engineering Materals II (MEng 2122) 8. 4/27/2015 8 Production of Pig – Iron process Street Harbor Rails Coking plant Foreign coke Grading plant Furnace Sintering plant Pig iron desulphurisation 2.

The 4 Types of Cast Iron - Monroe Engineering

Jul 30, 2019· Since then, it’s become an increasingly common type of metal. While all cast iron has a carbon content of over 2%, though, there are several different types of cast iron, each of which is unique. #1) Gray Cast Iron. The most common type, gray cast iron features a graphite microstructure consisting of many small fractures.

Iron Ore - Department for Energy and Mining

Types of iron ore. The major rock types mined for the production of metallic iron are massive hematite, pisolitic goethite/limonite, which provide a ''high-grade'' ore, and banded metasedimentary ironstone, magnetite-rich metasomatite, to a much lesser degree, rocks rich in siderite, rocks rich in chamosite which provide a ''low-grade'' ore.

10 Different Types of Casting Process | MachineMfg

Suitable for making blanks with complex shapes, especially with complex inner cavity; Wide adaptability and low cost; For some materials with poor plasticity, such as cast iron, sand casting is the only forming process for manufacturing its parts or blanks. Appliions: Automotive engine block, cylinder head, crankshaft and other castings

Steps in the Modern Steelmaking Process

Aug 21, 2020· Two processes, basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) and electric arc furnaces (EAF), account for virtually all steel production. 3  Ironmaking, the first step in making steel, involves the raw inputs of iron ore, coke, and lime being melted in a blast furnace.

Emerging Technologies for Iron and Steelmaking

The IFCON process, developed by ISCOR in South Africa, is capable of producing steel directly from coal and iron ore. 1 In this process, coal and ore are added continuously to a channel type induction furnace containing a slag-metal bath. Electrical energy is supplied by the induction furnace for heating and stirring the bath.

Iron in the Industrial Revolution - ThoughtCo

Jul 26, 2019· 1825 has been called the start of the new Iron Age, as the iron industry experienced a massive stimulation from the heavy demand for railways, which needed iron rails, iron in the stock, bridges, tunnels and more. Meanwhile, civilian use increased, as everything which could be made of iron began to be in demand, even window frames.